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Date::Names cpan:TBROWDER last updated on 2019-02-21


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Module Date::Names - Provides month and weekday names for numbers (multilingual)

This is Version 2 with significant differences and more features compred to Version 1:


use Date::Names;

my $d = :lang('nl');
say "Month 3, Dutch: '{$d.mon(3)}'"; # output: 'maart'
$d.clone: :lang('it');
say "Weekday 3, Italian: '{$d.dow(3)}'"; # output: ''
$d.clone: :lang('de');
say "Two-letter abbrev., weekday 3, German is '{$d.dow2(3)}'";
$d.clone: :lang('en');
say "Three-letter abbrev., weekday 3, English is '{$d.dow2(3)}'";


Module Date::Names provides the full name of months and days of the week for the numbers 1..12 and 1..7, respectively, primarily for use with Perl 6's date functions.

Full names of the months and weekdays are currently available in the following nine languages:

Table 1. Language ISO codes (lower-case)

Language ISO code
Dutch nl
English en
French fr
German de
Indonesian id
Italian it
Norwegian (Bokmål) nb
Russian ru
Spanish es


All English month and weekday names are always capitalized. Other languages vary in capitalization depending on where the word or abbreviation is used or other factors. The names and abbreviations herein are in the most common form, but the user can always explicitly set the case by applying the Perl 6 routines tc, uc, or lc to the name or abbreviation.

Some of the abbreviations include an ending period since that is customary use in some languages (e.g., French).


Not all languages have a complete set of two- and three-letter abbreviations, and some require up to four letters for the official abbreviations.

Table 2 shows the array names for the full names and abbreviations currently available. Array names with a 2 or 3 appended are complete abbreviation sets of that length only. Array names with an 'a' appended are sets of abbreviations of mixed length. A 'Y' in a cell indicates a language has a complete set of that type of abbreviation.

Note that in some countries the term "abbreviation" is distinctly different than "code" as it applies to date names. An asterisk in a cell marks those which are technically codes rather than abbreviations. Table 3 shows the meaning of other codes used in the Table 2 cells.

The array names in Table 2 (without a sigil) are the ones to be used for the day and month array names for the Date::Names class constructor.

Table 2. Name array availability by language

Language / Array mon dow mon3 dow3 mon2 dow2 mona dowa
Dutch Y Y Y Y Y
English Y Y Y Y Y
French Y Y Y Y* Y Y
German Y Y Y Y Y
Indonesian Y Y Y Y
Italian Y Y
Norwegian Y Y
Russian Y Y Y Y
Spanish Y Y Y* Y* Y Y

Table 3. Name array cell codes and meaning

Code Meaning
* code rather than an abbreviation
L array values are lower-case
M array values are mixed-case
P array values have a trailing period
T array values are title-case
U array values are upper-case
Y language has this array

Note that when the Date::Names class is fully implemented in Version 3, the user will be able to specify desired array table attributes for his or her tastes (case, trailing period, truncation or padding);


Native language speakers please submit PRs to (1) complete the existing language abbreviations, (2), correct errors, and (3) provide more languages. See the docs/CONTRIBUTING file for details.


The goal of this module is to be useful to non-English users as well as English users. The author welcomes suggestions for improvement and increased utility.

Class Date::Names

Now available is class Date::Names to ease use of the module:

use Date::Names;
my $dn =; # default: English, full names
is $dn.dow(1), "Monday";  # ok
is $dn.mon(1), "January"; # ok
is $dn.dow(1, 3), "Mon";  # ok, raw truncation on full names only
is $dn.mon(1, 3), "Jan";  # ok, raw truncation on full named only

The full API for the class constructor looks like this, but the names aren't all set in concrete yet (SUGGESTIONS WELCOME):

``` perl6 enum Period ; enum Case ; my $dn = lang => 'nl', # default: 'en' dset => 'dow3', # default: 'dow' mset => 'mon', # default: 'mon' period => yes, # default: keep-p (use native) case => uc, # default: keep-c (use native) truncate => 0, # default pad => 0, # default ):

Some helper methods:

``` perl6
my $dn =;
# how many non-empty data sets?
# show the sets:
# show all sets in all available languages

Planned features:

  1. English language default [complete]
  2. Default month and weekday array choices [complete]
  3. User chooses truncation or padding [API complete, needs tests]
  4. User chooses which month and weekday array to use [complete]
  5. User chooses case of the output names [API complete, needs tests]
  6. User can choose raw truncation on a full name, if permitted by the language [API partially complete]
  7. User can choose to have a period or not for abbreviations [API complete, needs tests]

Future features

  1. Language-specific attributes to affect class behavior (e.g., allow raw truncation or not)
  2. Add additional array names and types on a language basis (automatically via a separate CLDR date module)
  3. Graceful messages if a desired array is empty [version 2+]
  4. Features desired by users

The basic class is working (see Planned features above) and is tested briefly. More is to be done, but eventually it will be able to proved a unified handling of full names and abbreviations. The user will be able to control casing, absence or presence of periods on abbreviations, and truncation or padding as desired.



The following persons contributed to this project via PRs and comments (@name is an alias on IRC #perl6):

I am grateful for their help!


  1. [FR]
  2. [ES]
  3. [ES]


Tom Browder, <>


Copyright (c) 2019 Tom Browder, all rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl 6 itself.